Bonapartists in the Borderlands: French Exiles and Refugees on the Gulf Coast, 1815-1835
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Wilkins, University of West Alabama. Log In Account Info. Cart Checkout. E Book Browse this Book on Google Bonapartists in the Borderlands recounts how Napoleonic exiles and French refugees from Europe and the Caribbean joined forces with Latin American insurgents, Gulf pirates, and international adventurers to seek their fortune in the Gulf borderlands. Also of Interest.
Filibusters and Expansionists by Frank L. Owsley , Jr, Gene A. The settlement was so named because the immigrants had been granted the lands by the U. Congress under the condition that they plant them with grape vines and olive trees. The French set about their task enthusiastically albeit with little or no agricultural competence. Thus, their settlement in Marengo County was only briefly an oasis of sophistication on the frontier. But, more comfortable in a battle or ballroom than behind a plow, they soon faltered. The wilderness eventually broke their will, and they returned to France, leaving their lands to sturdy American pioneers.
Subsequent retellings have added new details but have not changed the story's main themes. Very little of this traditional account of the Vine and Olive Colony, in fact, is accurate.
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Only one "aristocrat"—Gen. Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes—settled there, and he was actually the son of a merchant. No nobles and only a few other officers settled in the colony, and they all left Alabama after short stays. By , not a single Napoleonic veteran was left.
In reality, the majority of the French colonists were neither soldiers nor even from France itself. Most were middle-class white refugees of the Haitian slave rebellion of The settlers of the Vine and Olive Colony originated in the refugee community of the latter city. Chaudron used his newspaper to promote the project. By November, a group of merchants and military figures from Santo Domingo had formed the Colonial Society later renamed the Society for the Cultivation of the Vine and Olive , with Lefebvre-Desnouettes as its president, and had dispatched scouts to the Ohio Valley and beyond to locate a suitable site.
Its vice president, former U. Consul to Bordeaux William Lee, lobbied Congress to support the project. Congress took an interest in the plan because such a colony would consolidate the American hold on the Gulf Coast and because most members of the American political elite had a great deal of sympathy for the French exiles, whom they saw as fellow Republicans oppressed by a monarchy. They were also attracted to the prospect of establishing a domestic winemaking industry that would free the United States from dependence on imported European wines.
Bonapartists in the Borderlands: French Exiles and Refugees on the Gulf Coast, 1815-1835
Vine and Olive Colony Both initiatives succeeded. In January , the society had selected a settlement location on the Tombigbee River on former Choctaw lands. On March 3, , Congress passed an act "disposing of a tract of land to embrace four townships, on favorable terms to the emigrants, to enable them successfully to introduce the cultivation of the vine and olive. In spring , an advance party of about 40 settlers sailed from Philadelphia to Mobile and then up the Tombigbee River to the grant.
They reported favorably about conditions on the grant. Encouraged, Lefebvre-Desnouettes decided to lead a larger party to Alabama, and they sailed from Philadelphia to Mobile on August The colony seemed to be developing as planned, but none of the land had been allotted to individual settlers prior to their departure. This task fell to Gen. Lallemand had joined the French army as a teenager in and was not disposed to give up the life of adventure he had led since that time. After Napoleon's fall in , he saw opportunity to revive his fortunes in the turbulent state of American affairs—then dominated by the wars of Latin American independence.
During the fall of , he secretly organized an expedition to invade Texas, whose ownership was disputed by Spain and the United States.