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In two major earthquakes involving large numbers of high-rise buildings, in Los Angeles in and Mexico City in , lateral accelerations due to ground motions in a number of tall buildings were measured with accelerometers and were found to be of the order of 0. In Los Angeles, where the period of the seismic waves was less than one second, most steel-frame high rises performed well with relatively little damage; continuous concrete frames also generally performed well, but there was considerable cracking of concrete, which was later repaired by the injection of epoxy adhesive.
In Mexico City, however, the period of the seismic waves was quite long, on the order of a few seconds. This approached the natural frequency of many tall structures, inducing large sidesway motions that led to their collapse.
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Based on this experience, determination of the seismic performance criteria of buildings involves the lateral resistance of forces of 0. Another important factor is the ductility of the structure, the flexibility that allows it to move and absorb the energy of the seismic forces without serious damage. The design of buildings for seismic forces remains a complex subject, however, and there are many other important criteria involved.
The types of structures used for high-rise buildings must meet the lateral load performance criteria outlined above, and they must be reasonably efficient in the use of material and of reasonable cost. The most efficient high-rise structure would meet the lateral load criteria using no more material than would be required for carrying the building gravity load alone; in other words, it would have no premium for height.
High-rise structures begin at the lowest range with the rigid frame in both steel and concrete. Some or all of the joints between the beams and columns are rigidly joined together by welding the steel or pouring the concrete in situ, and lateral resistance is provided by the rigid joints; this system can rise about 90 metres feet with little premium. The next type is the rigid frame with a vertical shear truss in steel or a shear wall in concrete to provide greater lateral rigidity; it has a range of 38 to metres to feet. The bracing also carries gravity loads and further raises the lateral rigidity, making this a low-premium structure for the region of to metres to 1, feet.
The bundled tube , which consists of a number of framed tubes joined together for even greater lateral rigidity, begins to be practical at about 75 metres feet. It was the form of the steel structure used for the Sears now Willis Tower in Chicago. Beyond this height there is another system that appears to have a low premium: the superframe. No true superframes have yet been built.
These high-rise buildings play a major role in the more sprawled urban context of larger cities today. Read on for Emporis ' list of the 20 cities in the world with the most high-rises.
You might be surprised by which cities made the cut. Dubai Nhabitat, a mixed-use tower proposed by Ankara -based firm rgg Architects , utilizes its own unique formal system to create "permeability through different materials and building tectonics. Each apartment will feature a loggia behind a double glass facade. Known as Geysir, the 15,square-meter building will provide new units of varying size, as well as 2, square meters of retail space, helping to develop the urban quarter.
Conceived as a stack of individual houses resembling a Jenga tower, the building is the tallest in its Tribeca neighborhood.
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Have you been experiencing motion sickness, depression, sleepiness, and even fear, as you gaze out of your window from the 44 th floor? The Shanghai downtown area will see six new residential towers and amenities through the development. Undulating terraces on the top of each building promote a sense of community in addition to responding to the site's preservation of sunlight.
Nearing completion, the story residential tower will be the tallest structure in Tribeca when it opens later this year. The concept of 56 Leonard Street is to disrupt the monotony of typical high-rise city buildings with a more varied articulation achieved by stacking recognizable individual houses.
Shifted floor slabs create differentiated corners, cantilever, and balcony conditions that provide apartments with their own unique characters. Developed from the inside out, the pixelated rooms are arranged such that the base of the tower reacts to the street conditions and ripples upward to merge with the sky.
Weighed down or perking up? Phrasal verbs to express emotions, part 1. Cambridge Dictionary Plus Mi perfil How to Choose a dictionary. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Dinos algo sobre este ejemplo:. Este es un buen ejemplo de uso de esta palabra.
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La frase tiene contenido ofensivo. Cancelar Enviar. Your feedback will be reviewed. She lives in a high-rise overlooking the river. Synonyms skyscraper.