Models, Numbers, and Cases: Methods for Studying International Relations (draft)

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Certainly not every member of the group reacts or feels the same; some members may react or feel quite the opposite. But when thinking of social or group emotions, there is a critical mass of individual members who do, allowing us to speak of typical group reactions. In the first stage, individuals begin to identify as part of a group. That is, not just as members of a group but as an integral, even organic, part of it. The process of identification is important, because not all members of the group will be involved in an event that affects other members of the group.

But by identifying as the group, individuals who did not participate in the particular trigger converge on a set of shared reactions. Thus is the group created—the whole bigger than the sum of its parts. The second stage involves the appraisal of a given situation. Here, individuals who identify as the group consider developments or specific events if they are connected to a particular trigger in light of how they affect the group.

Think of how British or Italian citizens react when a member of the national team scores a goal or is injured in an international match. The third stage follows directly on this: the generation of intergroup emotions. Because most members identify with the group, there is a convergence of these emotional reactions. The fourth stage is the translation of these emotional reactions into action tendencies or group behavior.


  • BA (Hons) International Relations and Politics.
  • Treaty making process - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade!
  • Official Master's Degree in International Affairs: Economics, Politics and Law.

Israel sent soldiers to intercept the convoy before it reached shore, and while they boarded the Mavi Marmara to disable it, fighting between the activists and the soldiers broke out—leading to nine deaths aboard the ship. Turkey then sought to punish Israel by castigating it in public, taking it to Turkish and international courts, and excluding it from NATO-led programs. Although IET tells us how to think about group emotions, the connection between group or social emotions and particular foreign policy behavior needs to be explored further.

We know that states, like other groups, are led by individuals who make specific decisions about how the state should act. A scholar who focuses on the system as determining behavior need not account for what ties leaders to their populations, but the study of emotions requires that attention be paid to this empirical and theoretical problem. Emotions are defined by the specific mental and physiological reactions they generate within individuals—we know this from clinical psychological studies and neural research.

How, then, can we contend that a group or state feels a specific emotion and acts on that basis? One way is to focus on decision-makers as they reflect and refract the emotions of the group. In the case of states, that means the researcher must account for at least three things: 1 Opinion polls and other data that can tell us how the public feels; 2 authoritative leaders who make statements that reproduce and echo those emotional reactions; 3 the specific foreign policies made by those leaders, which can then be understood as channeling the particular national emotional reactions.

It is more complicated to research and trace the evidence needed for theorizing the process laid out above, because it requires a study of society as well as of the individual leaders who decide for it. As in a focus on individual decision-makers the second approach to thinking of state emotions , there is some difficulty in figuring out how specific leaders, whom researchers may not have access to, react in emotional terms to given events or developments. This module is designed to explore political challenges and debates around the presence of culturally diverse populations in the United Kingdom and aims to examine the role this presence plays in understandings of British and English identities.

This module aims to provide students with the opportunity to develop an in-depth knowledge of how the UK Parliament works, in theory and in practice. The module also aims to bring students into closer contact with Parliament through handling Parliamentary materials and by facilitating contact with Parliamentarians through, for example an external speaker series, and when possible an optional visit to Parliament. Please note that where opportunities arise to take part in a trip to Parliament, students are expected to cover their own transportation and meal costs.

This module aims to locate the theory, practice and history of punishment and penal policy in the context of social control in general.

Course Descriptions

As well as aiming to address the philosophy of punishment, in terms of core concepts of justice, desert, deterrence, retribution, rehabilitation and reparation, it seeks to examine the way in which social control is a fundamental aspect of social relations. This module aims to build upon the more general analysis of policing in Policing Crime and Deviance. The aim is to instil a more focused, substantial and critical understanding of the place of policing within the contemporary complex myriad of social controls, as well as the specific organisational and political challenges faced by the police in the 21st Century.

This module aims to provide an opportunity for students to sharpen their analytical skills and broaden their knowledge by exposing them to the wide-ranging debates on the problems of transition from Communism. More generally, it aims to provide students with the opportunity to develop the intellectual ability to interpret current and future developments in Russia and China. This module aims to examine both the role of psychology in prisons and the psychological effects of imprisonment.

Politics and International Relations BA Hons

Historically, imprisonment was used to punish those who had broken the law by punishing the body; in comparison imprisonment today has multiple aims, to punish, to deter and to rehabilitate. However, these aims are often compromised due to negative experiences encountered within prison and their psychological effects.

This module aims to focus upon the relationship between Criminology and Psychology, how each approaches the problems of criminal or deviant conduct, and their distinctive contributions to criminal justice. A key aim is to provide students with the opportunity to analyse the extent to which psychology contributes or detracts from criminological projects.

Core/Elective Core Courses

This interdisciplinary module will explore the issues of race, racism, race relations and racial conflict, and resistance to racism in contemporary UK and worldwide. Although the main focus of this module is on the UK, examples from different parts of the world and a comparative lens will enable us to examine these issues from a global perspective. The module will also enable students to assess the continued significance of race and racism in the contemporary world.

Students will benefit from an cross-disciplinary approach that addresses themes across Sociology, Criminology, Politics, International Relations, and Social Policy. This international relations module seeks to explore the ways in which the contemporary international order can be explained as deriving from the global experience of European colonialism and imperialism.

It aims to provide students with the opportunity to develop a knowledge of the nature, politics and consequences of the Western imperial penetration. This module takes the politics, economics and societies of the developing world as its subject matter. The module aims to explore a range of contemporary issues confronting the developing world and the module seeks to use case studies extensively throughout, in order to illuminate theory and to demonstrate the broader relevance of the issues under discussion to the study of international relations.

This module is designed to cover a variety of issues relating to the politics of energy and climate change. It seeks to provide students with a history of energy and climate change policy, an exploration of theoretical approaches and political implications, and also an opportunity to develop a comparative perspective through the examination of examples of EU and global energy and climate change policy and the way in which this is now intrinsically global.

This module aims to examine the concepts that shape debates in and are shaped by global health, including global health governance and global health diplomacy.


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It then seeks provide students with the opportunity to critically assesses programmes and strategies designed to address global health challenges such as pandemics, infectious and non-communicable diseases, reproductive health, biosecurity and inequalities of health. This module is designed to explore the politics of masculinity in contemporary society.

This module explores how different Western European states have responded to the challenges of increasing immigration. It examines the causes and dynamics of migration labour and family and refugee migration flows to, and within, Western Europe since World War II. It compares nation-state responses with respect to entry controls and philosophies of integration, examining the influence that interest groups, supranational institutions like the EU, and party politics including populist radical-right politics have on these policies.

Is an International Relations Major Worth It?

It particularly examines the UK within this comparative international context, using Lincolnshire as a case study with which students can explore academic and policy debates in this field. This module is designed to focus upon the processes of policy making and implementation at both practical and theoretical levels. It aims to provide students with an introduction to a variety of models of policy making and seeks to discuss the complexities of the distribution of power and decision making, primarily, but not limited to, the field of social policy. The availability of optional modules may vary from year to year and will be subject to minimum student numbers being achieved.

This means that the availability of specific optional modules cannot be guaranteed. Optional module selection may also be affected by staff availability. The University of Lincoln's policy on assessment feedback aims to ensure that academics will return in-course assessments to students promptly — usually within 15 working days after the submission date.

The way students are assessed on this course may vary for each module. Examples of assessment methods that are used include coursework, such as written assignments, reports or dissertations; practical exams, such as presentations, performances or observations; and written exams, such as formal examinations or in-class tests. The weighting given to each assessment method may vary across each academic year. The University of Lincoln aims to ensure that staff return in-course assessments to students promptly. Research within the School of Social and Political Sciences has helped to inform public policy.

Recent research projects have explored parliamentary reform, gender and sexuality, and terrorism.

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This helps to inform teaching and students are encouraged to take advantage of opportunities to undertake their own research. There are opportunities to supplement studies by participating in field trips to key international organisations and political institutions. Places are limited so students are encouraged to register their interest early in the academic year. Transportation costs covered on the trip included flights, transfers and day trips only.

Students should also expect to pay for all meals whilst on the trip plus an additional spend for activities in their spare time. Transportation costs covered on the trip included travel by coach, transfers and day trips only. Similarly, students should expect to pay for all meals whilst on the trip plus an additional cost for activities during their spare time.

The Study Abroad Initiative is available to those who have successfully completed years one and two of their degree and enables students to spend a year studying overseas during what would be their third year of study. During the year abroad students will not pay any additional tuition fees. Students will be responsible for their travel and accommodation costs in addition to their normal living costs throughout the year. Where applicable, visa costs will also need to be covered by the student. Students will then return to the University of Lincoln to complete the final year of their degree.

The initiative enables students to experience their subject from a different perspective and to explore different societies and cultures. These places are allocated competitively, subject to academic criteria. Student as Producer Student as Producer is a model of teaching and learning that encourages academics and undergraduate students to collaborate on research activities. It is a programme committed to learning through doing. The Student as Producer initiative was commended by the QAA in our review and is one of the teaching and learning features that makes the Lincoln experience unique.

The Work Opportunities Hub is available to support all students within the College of Social Science who are seeking to enhance their studies by engaging with a variety of work settings.