The Cervix, 2nd edition
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Rapid Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2nd Edition
Email address. The cervix term taken from the Latin, meaning neck is the most inferior portion of the uterus, protruding into the upper vagina.
The vagina is fused circumferentially and obliquely around the distal part of the cervix, dividing it into an upper, supravaginal and lower, vaginal portion. The vaginal portion portio vaginalis of the cervix, also referred to as the exocervix, is delimited by the anterior and posterior fornices and has a convex elliptical surface.
Cervical cancer - Wikipedia
It is centered by the external os, a circular in the nulligravida or slit-like in the parous woman opening Fig. The portio may be divided into anterior and posterior lips, of which the anterior is shorter and projects lower than its posterior counterpart. The external os is interconnected with the isthmus internal os by the cervical canal. The canal is an elliptical cavity, measuring in its greatest width 8 mm, and contains longitudinal mucosal ridges, the plicae palmatae Fig. The area between the endocervical and endometrial cavity is called the isthmus or lower uterine segment. The latter term is used principally for descriptive purposes during gestation and labor.
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The use of the terms anatomic and histologic internal os seems arbitrary, as no convincing morphologic evidence is offered to support such a geographic subdivision. The muscular layer in the region of the isthmus is less well developed than in the corpus, a feature that facilitates effacement and dilatation during labor. Unable to display preview.
Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Anatomy and Histology of the Cervix.
This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Normal cervix and vagina. Fertil Steril Google Scholar. Coppleson M, Reid B Preclinical carcinoma of the cervix uteri, 1st ed. Most women with cervical insufficiency do not have risk factors; however, the following risk factors have been identified:.
Congenital disorders of collagen synthesis eg, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Cervical insufficiency is often asymptomatic until premature delivery occurs. Some women have earlier symptoms, such as vaginal pressure, vaginal bleeding or spotting, nonspecific abdominal or lower back pain, or vaginal discharge. Usually, cervical insufficiency is not identified until after preterm delivery occurs for the first time.
The diagnosis of cervical insufficiency is suspected in women with risk factors or characteristic symptoms or signs. Then, transvaginal ultrasonography is done.
Results are most accurate after 16 weeks gestation. Suggestive ultrasonographic findings include.
Cerclage reinforcement of the cervical ring with nonabsorbable suture material may be indicated based on history alone history-indicated cerclage or based on ultrasonographic findings plus history ultrasound-indicated cerclage [ 1 ]. For other patients, the procedure should probably be done only if all of the following are present:.
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Restricting cerclage to such patients does not appear to increase risk of preterm delivery and reduces the number of cerclages currently being done by two thirds. If preterm labor is suspected after 22 to 23 weeks, corticosteroids to accelerate fetal lung maturation and modified activity modified rest may also be indicated 2. Obstet Gynecol 2 Pt 1 —,