The Middle Bronze Age IIA Cemetery at Gesher: Final Report (Annual of ASOR)
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Roman and Islamic fortifications, faced with stone, followed the same footprint, a vast semicircle protecting Ashkelon on the land side. On the sea it was defended by a high natural bluff. A roadway more than 20 feet in width ascended the rampart from the harbor and entered a gate at the top. In the ruins of a small ceramic tabernacle was found a finely cast bronze statuette of a bull calf silvered, 4 inches long. Images of calves and bulls were associated with the worship of the Canaanite gods Baal.
Ashkelon is mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts of the 11th dynasty as "Asqanu. One letter from the pharaoh to Yidya was discovered in the early s; the Philistines conquered Canaanite Ashkelon about BC. Their earliest pottery, types of structures and inscriptions are similar to the early Greek urbanised centre at Mycenae in mainland Greece , adding weight to the hypothesis that the Philistines were one of the populations among the " Sea Peoples " that upset cultures throughout the eastern Mediterranean at that time.
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Ashkelon became one of the five Philistine cities that were warring with the Israelites and the Kingdom of Judah. According to Herodotus , its temple of Venus was the oldest of its kind, imitated in Cyprus , he mentions that this temple was pillaged by marauding Scythians during the time of their sway over the Medes. Haifa Haifa is the third-largest city in Israel — after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv — with a population of , in Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel , the settlement has a history spanning more than 3, years; the earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam , a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age.
In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the millennia, the Haifa area has changed hands: being conquered and ruled by the Canaanites , Phoenicians , Hasmoneans , Byzantines , Crusaders and the British. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in , the Haifa Municipality has governed the city; as of , the city is a major seaport located on Israel's Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering It is the major regional center of northern Israel.
According to researcher Jonathan Kis-Lev , Haifa is considered a relative haven for coexistence between Jews and Arabs. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion , are located in Haifa, in addition to the largest k school in Israel, the Hebrew Reali School ; the city plays an important role in Israel's economy.
It is home to Matam , one of the largest high-tech parks in the country. Haifa Bay is a center of petroleum refining and chemical processing. Haifa functioned as the western terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan ; the ultimate origin of the name Haifa remains unclear. One theory holds; some Christians believe. Mount Carmel covers Haifa. Other spellings in English included Caipha, Caiffa and Khaifa; the earliest named settlement within the area of modern-day Haifa was a city known as Sycaminum.
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The remains of the ancient town can be found in a coastal tell, or archaeological mound, known in Hebrew as Tel Shikmona , meaning "mound of the Ficus sycomorus", in Arabic as Tell el-Semak or Tell es-Samak, meaning "mound of the sumak trees", names that preserved and transformed the ancient name, by which the town is mentioned once in the Mishnah for the wild fruits that grow around it.
The name Efa first appears during Roman rule, some time after the end of the 1st century, when a Roman fortress and small Jewish settlement were established not far from Tel Shikmona. Haifa is mentioned more than times in the Talmud , a work central to Judaism. Hefa or Hepha in Eusebius of Caesarea's 4th-century work, Onomasticon , is said to be another name for Sycaminus; this synonymizing of the names is explained by Moshe Sharon , who writes that the twin ancient settlements, which he calls Haifa-Sycaminon expanded into one another, becoming a twin city known by the Greek names Sycaminon or Sycaminos Polis.
References to this city end with the Byzantine period. Around the 6th century, Porphyreon or Porphyrea is mentioned in the writings of William of Tyre , while it lies within the area covered by modern Haifa, it was a settlement situated south of Haifa-Sycaminon. Following the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Haifa was used to refer to a site established on Tel Shikmona upon what were the ruins of Sycaminon.
Haifa is mentioned by the midth-century Persian chronicler Nasir Khusraw , the 12th- and 13th-century Arab chroniclers, Muhammad al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi ; the Crusaders, who captured Haifa in the 12th century, call it Caiphas , believe its name related to Cephas, the Aramaic name of Simon Peter. Eusebius is said to have referred to Hefa as Caiaphas civitas , Benjamin of Tudela , the 12th-century Jewish traveller and chronicler, is said to have attributed the city's founding to Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest at the time of Jesus. Haifa al-'Atiqa is another name used by some locals to refer to Tell es-Samak, when it was the site of Haifa while a hamlet of residents, before it was moved in to a new fortified site founded by Zahir al-Umar 1.
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The new village, the nucleus of modern Haifa, was first called al-imara al-jadida by some, but others residing there called it Haifa al-Jadida at first, simply Haifa. In the early 20th century, Haifa al'Atiqa was repopulated with many Arab Christians in an overall neighborhood in which many Middle Eastern Jews were established inhabitants, as Haifa expanded outward from its new location.
A town known today, it was a fishing village. A grotto on the top of Mount Carmel is known as the " Cave of Elijah ", traditionally linked to the Prophet Elijah and his apprentice, Elisha. In Arabic, the highest peak of the Carmel range is called the Muhraka, or "place of burning," harking back to the burnt offerings and sacrifices there in Canaanite and early Israelite times In the 6th c. Khirbet Qeiyafa Khirbet Qeiyafa is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Elah Valley and dated to the first half of the 10th century BCE. The ruins of the fortress were uncovered in , near the Israeli city of Beit Shemesh , 30 km from Jerusalem , it covers nearly 2.
Excavations at site continued in subsequent years.
A number of archaeologists Yosef Garfinkel and Saar Ganor , have claimed that it might be the biblical city of Sha'arayim, because of the two gates discovered on the site, or Neta'im and that the large building at the center is an administrative building dating to the reign of King David , where he might have lodged at some point; this is based on their conclusions that the site ca. Others are sceptical, suggest it might represent either a North Israelite , Philistine or Canaanite fortress; the techniques and interpretations used to reach the conclusion that Khirbet Qeiyafa was a fortress of King David have been criticised.
This is Iron Age II for most findings The top layer of the fortress shows that the fortifications were renewed in the Hellenistic period. In the Byzantine period, a luxurious land villa was built on top of the Iron Age II palace and cut the older structure in two; the meaning of the Arabic name of the site, Khirbet Qeiyafa, is uncertain. Scholars suggest it may mean "the place with a wide view.
Garfinkel accepted the idea and excavation t-shirts with that name were produced for the and seasons; the name derives from the location of the site on the northern bank of Nahal Elah, one of six brooks that flow from the Judean mountains to the coastal plain. The Elah Fortress lies just inside a north-south ridge of hills separating Philistia and Gath to the west from Judea to the east. The ridge includes the site identified as Tel Azekah. Past this ridge is a series of connecting valleys between two parallel groups of hills. Tel Sokho lies on the southern ridge with Tel Adullam behind it; the Elah Fortress is situated on the northern ridge, overlooking several valleys with a clear view of the Judean Mountains.
Behind it to the northeast is Tel Yarmut. From the topography , archaeologists believe this was the location of the cities of Adullam, Sokho and Yarmut cited in Joshua ; these valleys formed the border between Judea. In , British surveyors noted only stone heaps at Kh. In , Dimitri Baramki, reported the site to hold a 35 square metres watchtower associated with Khirbet Quleidiya, metres east; the site was neglected in the 20th century and not mentioned by leading scholars.
Yehuda Dagan documented the visible remains; the site raised curiosity in when Saar Ganor discovered impressive Iron Age structures under the remnants. Based on pottery styles and two burned olive pits tested for carbon at Oxford University and Ganor have dated the site to — BCE, although Israel Finkelstein contends evidence points to habitation between and BCE; the initial excavation by Ganor and Garfinkel took place from August 12 to 26, on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Institute of Archaeology.
In their preliminary report at the annual ASOR conference on November 15, they presented a theory that the site was the Biblical Azekah, which until had been associated with Tell Zakariya. In Sept. In November, with volunteers from the Bnai Akiva youth organization, the area was cleared and an excavation organized by Garfinkel and Ganor confirmed the architecture of the second gate. The identification provides a solid basis for identifying the site as biblical Sha'arayim. In a plan to build a neighborhood on the site was cancelled, to enable the archaeological dig to go forward. Discoveries at Khirbet Qeiyafa are significant to the debate on archaeological evidence and historicity of the biblical account of the United Monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II.
Garfinkel said in that the Qeiyafa excavations support the idea "that the kingdom of Judah existed as a centrally organized state in the tenth century BCE". Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin, maintained that the site shows affiliations with a North Israelite entity. In Finkelstein and Piasetsky criticised the previous statistical treatment of radio-carbon dating at Khirbet Qeiyafa and als. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In Garfinkel, Yosef and Ganor, Saar eds.
Khirbet Qeiyafa, Vol. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The earliest writing systems appeared c. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July Mortimer Wheeler pioneered systematic excavation in the early 20th century. Pictured, are his excavations at Maiden Castle, Dorset , in October Cast of the skull of the Taung child , uncovered in South Africa. The Child was an infant of the Australopithecus africanus species, an early form of hominin.
Establishment of the Hebrew University and laying of the cornerstone, National Library of Israel , Givat Ram, established Painting of the inauguration ceremony, Haifa is the third-largest city in Israel — after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv— with a population of , in The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area, the second- or third-most populous metropolitan area in Israel. Jars excavated at Tell Abu Hawam. It was the first culture in prehistoric Israel and one of the oldest in the Levant to make use of pottery. Yarmukian pottery vessel, Sha'ar HaGolan.
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12, years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. Neolithic stone artifacts are by definition polished and, except for specialty items, not chipped. Archaeological site with artifacts from the Neolithic era. Battle of Ascalon , Located less than 1 km from the border with Jordan, it falls under the jurisdiction of Emek HaYarden Regional Council.
The watchtower being erected at Sha'ar Hagolan, 21 August Khirbet Qeiyafa is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Elah Valley and dated to the first half of the 10th century BCE. Image: Survey of Western Palestine Tel Lachish, is the site of an ancient Near East city, now an archaeological site and an Israeli national park. Lachish is located in the Shephelah region of Israel between Mount Hebron and the Mediterranean coast.
Gesher is an archaeological site located on the southern bank of Nahal Tavor, near kibbutz Gesher in the central Jordan Valley of Israel.
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It bears signs of occupation from two periods, the very early Neolithic and the Middle Bronze Age. Gesher Pre-Pottery Neolithic A rounded building. Yiftahel is an archaeological site located in the Lower Galilee in northern Israel. Various salvage excavations took place here between and Yiftahel Pre-Pottery Neolithic B flint arrowheads.
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