Using UML: Software Engineering with Objects and Components (2nd Edition)

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They are described only as viewed externally by the actor. Use-case diagrams are essential to capturing requirements.

Using UML : Perdita Stevens :

Kinds of relationships are: dependency, association, generalization and realization. An object diagram differs from a class diagram in that it shows a number of instances of classes rather than actual classes. It shows an example of a class diagram that shows what the system could look like at some point in time. Object diagrams are used to exemplify complex class diagrams. A state diagram addresses the dynamic view of a system. It can be seen as a complement to the description of a class.

State diagrams are not drawn for all objects rather for the more complex ones. Sequence and collaboration diagrams are often referred to as interaction diagrams. Interaction diagrams address the dynamic view of a system showing the sequence of messages between a number of objects. Sequence diagrams emphasize the time-ordering of messages and collaboration diagrams emphasize the structural organization of the participating objects.

Activity diagrams are variants of state diagrams. They emphasize the flow of control among objects within a system but not in response to external events rather to internal processing. Activity diagrams focus on work performed in the implementation of an operation.

A component diagram shows the physical structure of the code in terms of code components. It may also shows dependencies between components and any interfaces they expose. Components, here, include source code or executables. Component diagrams provide the mapping between the logical and the implementation view. A deployment diagram shows the configuration of run time processing nodes and the components that live on them. Deployment diagrams are especially useful for distributed or embedded systems.

We should note at this point that few systems very large, very complex and with rigid documentation requirements would be modeled utilizing all nine types of diagrams. The concepts used in diagrams are called model elements. Model elements can be used in several different diagrams but there are rules that control this.


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UML also utilizes some general mechanisms , for additional information, in all diagrams such as adornments or notes. Also defined in the UML are extensibility mechanisms such as stereotypes. It should be apparent that there is no prescribed process in UML. Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed.


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  • Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! One of the first textbooks to be fully up-to-date with the new and expanded UML 2. The book encourages a pragmatic and open-minded approach to real-life software engineering.

    It places UML in the context of the software engineering discipline as a whole, providing students with a practical understanding of best practice in software design and development. The authors present a broad view of the subject area, enabling students to see for themselves how different practices may be appropriate for different situations.

    Help Centre. Notice that values — for example, values of attributes of an object, or values of arguments sent as part of messages — do not have to be members of basic types characters, integers, etc. They can also be objects in their own right. Q: What are the basic types in your language? One of the things that an object might do in response to a message is to send a message to another object. If it wants to do this it has to have some way of knowing a name for the object.

    Using UML : Software Engineering with Objects and Components 2nd

    Perhaps, for example, it has the object as the value of one of its attributes, in which case it can send the message by using the attribute as the name. Q: Suppose O is an object.


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    Apart from any objects which O may have as values of its attributes, to what objects might O be able to send messages? Note that when you send a message to an object, you do not in general know what code will be executed as a result, because that information is encapsulated. This will be important at the end of this chapter when we discuss dynamic binding. What is an object? Typically the interface records the selectors of these messages together with some information about what arguments are required and what, if anything, will be returned.

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    As we remarked in Chapter 1, we would probably prefer the interface to include some kind of specification of what the effect of sending a message to the object will be, but these specifications are normally given only in comments and accompanying documentation. In most languages there can be attributes in the public interface of an object as well; putting attribute X in the interface is equivalent to declaring that this object has a piece of data, X, which the outside world can inspect and alter.

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    Discussion Question 9 If you are using a language which does not permit attributes in the public interface, how can you achieve the same effects using messages to access the data? Are there any advantages of using this style even in a language that does permit attributes in interfaces? So an object is typically capable of understanding some messages that are not in the public interface. An object can always send to itself any message which it is capable of understanding. It may seem odd or overcomplicated to think of an object sending messages to itself: the reason for thinking this way will become clearer when we discuss dynamic binding later in the chapter.

    So typically an object has at least two interfaces: the public interface, which any part of the system can use, and the larger private interface which the object itself and other privileged parts of the system can use. Sometimes another intermediate interface, providing more capabilities than the public interface but fewer than the private interface, is useful. Because of this, an object can have or realize more than one interface.

    Conversely, many different objects may realize the same interface.

    Of course this is not a sensible way to build a typical system, because objects have a lot in common with one another. I will want them to behave consistently, so that developers and maintainers of the system can understand it. We will have a class of objects which represent customers.

    A class describes a set of objects with an equivalent role or roles in a system. In class-based object-oriented languages, every object belongs to a class, and the class of an object determines its interface. A method is a specific piece of code which implements the operation. Similarly the set of attributes which an object has is determined by its class, although of course the values taken by those attributes are not determined by the class, but may vary. For example, perhaps objects belonging to class Clock have a private attribute called time.

    If you send identical messages to two objects with the same class, the same method is executed in both cases, although the effect of executing the method may be very different if the objects have different values of their attributes. In summary, objects from the same class have the same interfaces.

    Q: In your language, how does the programmer define a class such as Clock? Are the interface and the implementation defined separately?

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    What are the public and private interfaces called? Probably public and private! Are there any other possibilities? What do the possibilities mean?